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In the UK, we have two common power systems supplying locomotives. A 25 kV overhead line system and a 750 V third rail system. Both systems use the track as a return path for current flow (see figures 1 and 2).
Published: 22 August 2019
Advances in Modern Instrument Controls: The Evolution of Insulation Tester Equipment
The original design of electrical test instrumentation was often focused on taking a measurement and little else. A lot of the operation and interpretation was left to the operator. This was fine for people who liked the challenge or had experience. But it could be tough on apprentices, new hires, and those who were simply handed the instrument with no training.Constant improvement in instrumentation has addressed these problems by adding to the capabilities of the instrument. Some are for convenience, some safety and some the advancement in technology over the years that helps standardize testing and provide more accurate results. A prime example is that of insulation testers. Let’s examine some of the key improvements in features and functions, and what they mean to the operator.
Published: 9 August 2019
ETK (Earth Test Kit) for Earth (Ground) Testing
When considering earth (ground) testing, people will often ask about what type of test leads should be used. This includes questions about the type of wire used, the resistance of the leads and the length of the leads, as well as concerns over safety. Fortunately, most of the answers to these questions are addressed by the design of the earth tester itself.
Published: 30 July 2019
The use of a DLRO (Digital Low Resistance Ohmmeter) versus a DMM (Digital Multi-Meter)
One of the simplest and most common electrical tests performed by electricians and test technicians today is the continuity test. This test option is featured on most multi-meters and insulation testers. The continuity test is simple to perform – connect two leads across opposite ends of the item under test (IUT), press the test button, and the instrument quickly provides a resistance reading. A low reading is considered good and a high reading bad. In fact, this test is so simple that it is often used for applications that actually require a more demanding performance from the test instrument. In this note we’ll look at some of these applications and the resulting requirements that highlight the differences between a low resistance ohmmeter (DLRO) and a digital multi-meter (DMM) – and the importance of using a DLRO to find issues that a DMM cannot.
Published: 29 July 2019
Motor testing with MTO106
Winding resistance measurements are conducted for detecting various faults in transformers – including shorted turns, loose connections, broken strands, and malfunctioning tap changer mechanisms. Winding resistance test sets such as the MTO106 are also capable of testing electric rotating machinery – motors and generators. Winding resistance measurements detect problems in a motor that other tests may not find. These problems include partial or fully shorted coils, poor crimps/connections, imbalance between phases (improper turns on a phase), and incorrect coil (phasing) connections.
Published: 22 July 2019
Keeping wind farms safe
Effective earthing is essential for the safe operation of wind farms, but accurately measuring earth resistance at these locations presents multiple challenges. Ahmed El-Rasheed from Megger, explains how Megger and SSE are working together to address these.
Published: 30 May 2019
Terminal Connection Testing with the BITE2
A battery string consists of more than just batteries. There are also inter-cell connections, intertier connections and a charger that needs to be tested. There is also the connection between the charger and the battery string that needs to be tested. This is now required in the USA by North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC). A new feature has been added to the BITE2 receiver that allows for this measurement.
Published: 27 May 2019